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.But central assumptions were widely shared.When European war broke out in 1939, virtually all its possible outcomes filled planners in Washington with alarm.Dire, certainly, would be German success: few had any illusions in Hitler.But a British victory won by statist mobilization, entrenching the sterling bloc yet further, might not be so much better.Worst of all, perhaps, would be such mutual destruction that, in the ensuing chaos, one form or another of socialism would take hold of the continent.7 Once Washington entered the war, and alliance with London and Moscow was essential to winning it, the priorities of the battlefield took precedence over the calculations of capital.But these remained, throughout, the strategic background to the global struggle.For Roosevelt’s planners the long-term priorities were twofold.8 The world must be made safe for capitalism at large; and within the world of capitalism, the United States should reign supreme.What would this dual objective mean for the postwar scene?First and foremost, in point of conceptual time, the construction of an international framework for capital that would put an end to the dynamics of autarkic division and statist control that had precipitated the war itself, of which Hitler’s Third Reich and Japan’s Co-Prosperity Sphere had been the most destructive examples, but Britain’s Imperial Preference was another retrograde case.The free enterprise system in America itself was at risk without access to foreign markets.9 What would be needed after the war was a generalization of the Open Door that Washington had urged on its rivals in the race to seize command of markets in China: an all-round liberalization of trade, but henceforward—this was crucial—firmly embedded in new international institutions.Such an economic order would be not only a guarantee of peaceful relations between states, but allow the US to assume its natural place as first among them.From the time of Jefferson and Adams onwards, conspicuous national traditions had been generically expansionist, and as now far the largest and most advanced industrial power in the world, the US could be confident that free trade would ensure its hegemony at large, as it had Britain’s a century earlier.The political complement of this economic order would be founded on the principles of liberal democracy, as set forth in the Atlantic Charter.From 1943 onwards, as victory came nearer, the requirements of this vision moved into sharper political focus.Three concerns were overriding.10 The first was the threat to a satisfactory post-war settlement from the potential maintenance of imperial preference by Britain.Washington would brook no barrier to American exports.From the outset, the US had insisted that a condition of the lend-lease on which Britain depended for survival after 1940 must be abandonment of imperial preference, once hostilities were over.Churchill, furious at the imposition of Article VII, could only seek to weaken the American diktat with a vaguely worded temporary escape clause.The second concern, mounting as the end of the war approached, and fully shared by Britain, was the spread of resistance movements in Europe—France, Belgium, Italy, Yugoslavia, Greece—in which variegated currents of the left were leading forces, just as planners in Washington had originally feared.The third was the advance from the spring of 1944 of the Red Army into Eastern Europe, which soon became an acute preoccupation.If the prospect most immediately present in the minds of American planners at the start of the war was the danger of any reversion to the conditions that had produced Nazi Germany and militarist Japan, as it drew to an end a still greater threat was taking shape in the form of its most important ally in the battle against them, the Soviet Union.For here was not just an alternative form but a negation of capitalism, intending nothing less than its overthrow across the planet.Communism was an enemy far more radical than fascism had ever been: not an aberrant member of the family of polities respecting private ownership of the means of production, but an alien force dedicated to destroying it.American rulers had, of course, always been aware of the evils of Bolshevism, which Wilson had tried to stamp out at their inception by dispatching an expedition to help the Whites in 1919.But though foreign intervention had not succeeded in strangling it at birth, the USSR of the interwar years remained an isolated, and looked a weak, power.Soviet victories over the Wehrmacht, long before there was an Anglo-American foot on European soil, abruptly altered its position in the postwar calculus.So long as fighting lasted, Moscow remained an ally to be prudently assisted, and where necessary humoured.But once it was over, a reckoning would come.IIIAt the helm during the Second World War, Roosevelt had manoeuvred his country into the conflict not out of any general anti-fascist conviction—though hostile to Hitler, he had admired Mussolini, helped Franco to power, and remained on good terms with Pétain11—but fear of Japanese and German expansion.Nor, for his class, was he especially anti-communist: at ease with the USSR as an ally, he was scarcely more realistic about Stalin than Stalin had been about Hitler.Though fond of Churchill, he was unsentimental about the empire he upheld, and had no time for De Gaulle.Strategic thought of any depth was foreign to him.Never a particularly well-informed or consistent performer on the world stage, personal self-confidence substituting for analytic grip, his vagaries frequently dismayed subordinates.12 But an abiding set of premises he possessed.In the words of the most accomplished apologist for his conduct of foreign affairs, his consistency lay simply in the fact that ‘Roosevelt was a nationalist, an American whose ethnocentrism was part of his outlook’: a ruler possessed of the ‘calm, quiet conviction that Americanism’, conceived as a ‘combination of free enterprise and individual values’, would be eagerly adopted by the rest of the world, once American power had done away with obstacles to its spread.Though proud of the New Deal’s work in saving US capitalism, he was uncomfortable with economic questions.But ‘like most Americans, Roosevelt unquestioningly agreed with the expansionist goals of Hull’s economic program’.There, ‘he did not lead, but followed’.13The president’s vision of the postwar world, formed as the USSR was still fighting for its life against the Third Reich, while the United States was basking untouched in the boom of the century, gave primacy to the construction of a liberal international order of trade and mutual security that the US could be sure of dominating.A product of the war, it marked an epochal break in American foreign policy.Hitherto, there had always been a tension within American expansionism, between the conviction of hemispheric separatism and the call of a redemptive interventionism, each generating its own ideological themes and political pressures, crisscrossing or colliding according to the conjuncture, without ever coalescing into a stable standpoint on the outside world.In the wave of patriotic indignation and prosperity that followed the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour, the conflicts of the past were washed away.Traditionally, the strongholds of isolationist nationalism lay in the small-business and farmer population of the Mid-West; the bastions of a more interventionist nationalism—in local parlance, ‘internationalism’—in the banking and corporate elites of the East Coast.The war brought these together [ Pobierz całość w formacie PDF ]